A step-by-step Pascal tutorial for beginners.


Welcome to - a website which is particularly created to help you learn the Pascal Programming language step-by-step! Enjoy surfing this website and get yourself reading the lessons built purposely for those who would like to get themselves familiar and capable of writing structured Pascal programs.

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The Pascal Programming Language - Is it for me?

If you stepped into the site to start learning Pascal, you are on the right track! There are'nt any special pre-requisites to learn Pascal. Thus, you can start learning it straight away! Pascal is a very easy language, and helps beginners to introduce them to other languages, before they can start to learn C or C++ or any other advanced language (such as JAVA) - it is the doorstep to other high level programming languages (and talking from experience I have first learnt Pascal which made it very easy for me to migrate to other programming languages).

What is PASCAL?

Pascal is a high-level procedural programming language widely used as a as a language to learn general programming concepts. Sometimes Pascal is preferred to other languages, and could be useful to solve technical problems. It is not necessary to learn any other easier language to start learning Pascal, or any of that sort. It is a very easy programming language and helps you understand the basics of the world of programming. Also, it greatly helps you to start learning the C programming language and other language which are procedural. I had various experiences, one of which I learned Pascal, and then migrated to C programming very easily. The Pascal programming language has a programming structure and syntax similar to that of the C programming language. The successor language of Pascal is Delphi which is the object oriented version of Pascal.

A General Overview of Low-Level & High-Level Languages

There are two main categories of programming levels; these are low-level and high-level languages. The terms 'low' and 'high' does not mean that a group of 'low-level' languages are inferior to the 'high' ones. A low-level language consists of machine-oriented programming. For example, machine code is the only language with which the CPU understands. The other most-common low-level language, is the Assembly language. The Assembly language has a structure of machine-oriented programming. The Assembly Language, in other words, has a major control of the computer hardware. The Assembly Language makes use of mnemonics and has a better relationship with the memory and the CPU unit far more than that of other programming languages. The Assembly language is sometimes used as part of the source code written in Pascal. A high-level language consists of all those languages which are problem-oriented. A low-level language is not user-friendly, that is, makes it hard for the user to understand the structure of the program. Pascal, C/C++, BASIC, COBOL, Fortran, etc.. are examples of high-level programming languages. High-level languages represent their source code in such a way that it is more understandable to the programmer. Machine code is a language which uses binary coding in its source codes. What do you understand by 0001001011 010101 1001110? It's machine code - the only language which is understandable by the CPU.

Interpreters and Compilers

Every high-level language has its own source which needs to be translated into the CPU's language - machine code. These translators are referred to as interpreters and compilers. A high-level language package contains either an interpreter, or a compiler, with which a high-level language uses to translate the source code into object code. An interpreter is more slower than a compiler, the fact that it has to be loaded into memory till the end of the translation of the program. It is less practical than the compiler. However, the interpreter can be helpful for correcting out errors in programs i.e. it is ideal for debugging. A compiler is faster due to its single, complete translation of the program into object code. A compiler, compiles the source code (with no syntax errors) and makes a copy of it. This copy is called the 'object code'. After it has been compiled, it does not need a recompilation (unless the source code is changed and a recompilation is required to affect the change). The object code used by the OS in order to execute the compiled program.

Where can I get a Pascal Source Code Editor & Compiler?

Back in the old days, Borland Turbo Pascal, was the one-stop shop Pascal compiler out there. However times change and so do our computers. This compiler has since been outdated and nowadays there are different compilers for Pascal one can use.

It is of fundamental importance that any learner who starts learning Pascal uses a compiler to compile his code and execute it while practicing Pascal coding. At the time of writing, the best source code editor for Pascal programs and compiler is Free Pascal. One can download the compiler by clicking here.

Advanced Programming Concepts - Articles

Are you looking for some more advanced and applied concepts of the pascal programming language such as sorting, pointers and linked lists? Then the articles section is just the section for you. Articles provide discussions about advanced concepts of the language which you can integrate into your programs and use them wisely.

Why don't you have a look at the articles section by clicking here or choose an article from the table below:

Article # Article Title
1. Sorting
2. The Stack Data Structure
3. Pointers
4. Linked Lists
5. Recursion
6. Object Oriented Programming - Part 1

Errors in Programs

Mistakes can be found in some of my source codes around this site. Should this happen, please send me an e-mail and inform me immediately, and obviously state where I can find this error. You will be doing a favour for other fellow learners who visit this site to learn Pascal programming. Anyways, thank you in advance if you spot and report any errors in my pascal programs.

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